There are various factors to consider when reviewing or drafting a confidentiality or non-disclosure agreement (NDA). Obviously, your perspective on the agreement depends on whether you are primarily disclosing or receiving confidential information. The following points should be kept in mind:
- Need for an agreement. Entering into an NDA increases the risk that the recipient may face charges of trade secret misappropriation if it develops similar information in the future or inadvertently discloses or uses the information. This is the primary reason that VCs will not enter into NDAs.
- Mutual versus one-way. Some agreements only cover disclosure of confidential information by one party. Other agreements are mutual and cover disclosures by both parties. Generally speaking, mutual agreements are less likely to have provisions that are one-sided.
- Non-disclosure and non-use. There are two important restrictions in an NDA. The non-disclosure provision prevents the recipient from disclosing the confidential information to third parties. The non-use provision prevents the recipient from using the information other than for a specified purpose. Occasionally, an NDA may not have a non-use provision. This would allow the receiving party to use the information for its own purposes as long as it did not disclose the information
- Definition of confidential information. The discloser will want a broad definition of confidential information and may also want third party confidential information to be deemed confidential. The receiver will want to narrow the definition of confidential information in order to avoid being “tainted” by the information. The definition can be narrowed by (i) limiting it to information disclosed in writing (or oral disclosures reduced to writing within a certain time frame), (ii) specifically marking the information confidential, (iii) specifying the information that is deemed confidential or (iv) specifying the dates of disclosure. The discloser will want to avoid some of the limitations because of the possibility or inadvertent disclosure or over-marking information as confidential, which may impair the ability to enforce the agreement with respect to genuine trade secrets.
- Exceptions to confidential information. The recipient will want broad exceptions to the definition of confidential information. Typical exceptions to the definition of confidential information include (i) information publicly known or in the public domain prior to the time of disclosure, (ii) information publicly known and made generally available after disclosure through no action or inaction of the recipient, (ii) information already in the possession of recipient, without confidentiality restrictions, (iv) information obtained by the receiver from a third party without a breach of confidentiality, and (v) information independently developed by the recipient. The discloser will try to limit the exceptions or add qualifiers such as the discloser must prove the exception with contemporaneous written records. Please note that the typical exception for information required to be disclosed by law should be an exception to the duty to not disclose, as opposed to an exception from the definition of confidential information (which would allow the recipient to disclose the information to anyone).
- Residual information. The recipient will want to include a clause that allows the recipient to use the discloser’s information that is retained in its employees’ memory. The recipient will want to avoid being “tainted” by receiving the information. This is often strongly rejected by the discloser. In the event the residuals clause is included, the discloser may try to limit it to (i) use of general skills and knowledge, (ii) information retained in the unaided memory of employees after a certain amount of time after access to the confidential information, and (iii) explicitly noting that the discloser is not granting any license to the recipient.
- Permitted disclosures. The discloser will want to limit disclosures to employees and contractors on a need to know basis with similar non-disclosure obligations. In addition, if disclosure is required by law, the discloser will want the recipient to notify the discloser in advance and provide the opportunity to obtain a protective order or otherwise maintain the confidentiality of the information.
- Term. NDAs commonly have terms of three to five years. The period of time depends the strategic value of the information to the discloser and how quickly the information may become obsolete.